(both from www.globalresearch.ca – an excellent source of otherwise hard to get research)
The Opium Wars in Afghanistan
Can Anyone Pacify the World’s Number One Narco-State?
by Alfred W. McCoy
In ways that have escaped most observers, the Obama administration is now trapped in an endless cycle of drugs and death in Afghanistan from which there is neither an easy end nor an obvious exit. ..
Opium and the CIA: Can the US Triumph in the Drug-Addicted War in Afghanistan?
by Prof Peter Dale Scott
Alfred McCoy’s important new article deserves to mobilize Congress for a serious revaluation of America’s ill-considered military venture in Afghanistan. The answer to the question he poses in his title – “Can Anyone Pacify the World’s Number One Narco-State?”– is amply shown by his impressive essay to be a resounding “No!” . . . not until there is fundamental change in the goals and strategies both of Washington and of Kabul. He amply documents that
- the Afghan state of Hamid Karzai is a corrupt narco-state, to which Afghans are forced to pay bribes each year $2.5 billion, a quarter of the nation’s economy;
- the Afghan economy is a narco-economy: in 2007 Afghanistan produced 8,200 tons of opium, a remarkable 53% of the country’s GDP and 93% of global heroin supply.